What is the Earliest Period of Christian Art?

In its early years, the Christian religion was primarily a religion practiced by the poorer levels of society. As a result, its artwork was not abundant due to a lack of funding, a tiny Christian population, and a possible commitment to the strict Old Testament prohibition on sacred images. When the Christians did make art, it was likely pagan art that they changed to incorporate Christian significance and meaning.

What is the Earliest Period of Christian Art?

Primitive Christian art or early Christian art encompasses painting, sculpture, architecture, created between the origins of Christianity till the sixth century, with a focus on West Mediterranean and Italy. It was also classified in the eastern provinces of the Roman empire as Byzantine art. Christianity was part of spirituality and mysticism movements in later times of the Roman Empire. As the Christian religion grew, so did its art, which represented the late antique aesthetic atmosphere. Apart from subject matter variations, Christianity and pagan sculptures appeared to be quite similar; in fact, it is feasible to establish that the same craftsman created artwork for both Christian and pagan objectives at times.

Below, we examine the question ‘What is the earliest period of Christian art’, its history, and features.


The oldest recognizable Christian art is seen in a couple of second-century walls and ceiling artworks in the Roman tombs, adorned in a sketchy style inspired by Roman impressionism until the 4th century. They give a valuable record of several elements of Christianity development. Symbolic imagery dominated early Christian imagery. To refer to Christ, a simple representation of a fish was adequate. The Eucharist was symbolized by bread and wine. Christians learned to give known pagan patterns new meanings in tomb paintings and other manifestations throughout the third and fourth centuries. Early representational images of Christ, for example, frequently depict him as the good shepherd, based on a classical predecessor.

Earlier Christian art dates back to when Christianity was still a small and occasionally persecuted cult. It blossomed just after AD 313 when the Christian ruler Constantine the Great ordered standard tolerance and acceptance of Christianity. Following royal support, the religion gained popularity, wealth, and numerous followers from all walks of life. The church suddenly needed to make artwork and architecture on a larger scale to welcome and enlighten its new members and represent its enhanced nobility and social value.

Early Christian Art Features

Archeological finds account for nearly all people’s understanding of early Christian society and artifacts. Unfortunately, relatively few religious arts or ideas from the starting centuries of Christianity have survived, owing to oppression and the majority of early Christians were impoverished or enslaved people. Despite this, the first instances of this type of art emerged about AD 150, well before Christianity’s legalization in 313. Almost all of these early Christian antiques were discovered in the West. They were inspired by the pagan artwork of Roman and Greek, art that was in use at the time. Only the topics were altered, and they became openly Christian gradually.

Early Christian Architecture

The demands of both the priesthood and the community were reflected in early church architecture. The primary distinction between a pagan temple and a Christian church is that the pagan temple was intended to be the residence of the concerned God or Goddess and a location where cult priests might give appropriate offerings and perform religious rituals. It was a holy site to which regular cult adherents were not permitted access, no matter how huge it was. On the other hand, a Christian church was built as a holy place for the local community to worship their God.

Since pagan ideas were generally significantly more rooted in rural regions, most early Christian church buildings were found in metropolitan locations. Independent Baptisteries, structured around a spherical or octagonal center plan, were created where space was allowed to host numerous ceremonies, primarily baptism, because non-baptized followers could not access the basilica. Nonetheless, baptisteries were almost exclusively found in cathedrals until the sixth century.

As Christian religion gained popularity and official respect, the ritual of The Mass became more consistent and sad, reflecting the monarch’s role as the earthly embodiment of Christ.

Early Christian Sculptures

Early Christian artwork for graves and tombs, like several drawings from the time, included figures or frequently ambiguous patterns in their interpretation. They may be due, in part, to the fact that the artists were almost all pagan, and many coffins were partially carved in local workshops before being shipped to Rome to be finalized per the customer’s requirements. Some appear to have been manufactured for Christian customers. Their use of conventional pagan forms is no more remarkable than earlier architectural designs or pagan mosaics themes. Since a coffin was the costliest type of burial, its user would have had greater social status than people buried in the catacombs.

Early Christian Mosaics

Early churches were primarily ornamented with mosaic art, as seen by the artwork at Sta Costanza, a domed round construction allegedly used as a burial chapel for the daughter of Constantine. Her grave is a massive sarcophagus presently on exhibit in the Vatican Museums. The mosaic imagery is unclear in meaning and interpretation; some of the Greek and Roman ceiling paintings are Christian because they were later given Christian importance. The Traditio Clavium, the Christ, handing the keys to St. Peter, or the Traditio Legis, Christ giving the Law to St. Paul, are examples of Early Christian mosaics.

Our Final Thoughts

The earliest period of Christian art held great importance in the Christian religion. It told of the traditions of the early ages and how was the culture of a particular period. It also had deep meanings and interpretations for Christians to understand its meaning and purpose. Different artwork held different meanings and definitions. The architecture of the Sarcophagus and the Basilica reflects the traditions of different periods. Many famous artworks of Christians are present, which shows the true depiction of Christianity as a religion. Though early Christian artwork is different from the modern one, it still represents early Christianity, and people still learn a lot from it.